Elle a également dirigé ou co-dirigé plusieurs recueils d’essais sur le même sujet : Like Painting… (PU de Rennes, « La Licorne », 1999), Actes du colloque de Cerisy : Texte/image : nouveaux problèmes (co-dir. This is Spencer’s first self-portrait in oil paint, made when he was around 23 years old. He kept painting rural landscapes all his life. The Long Weekend: Life in the English Country House 1918-1939. The N.C. Office of Environmental Education in the N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources was established to increase environmental literacy and natural resource stewardship in North Carolina by encouraging, promoting and supporting environmental education programs, facilities and resources throughout the state. He described them as "dead, dead", but continued to produce them because they were lucrative. Elles évoquent la manière des préraphaélites (abondance de détails, couleurs vives). , when we realize that he painted two very different kinds of landscapes. Another later churchyard painting will strikingly appear, as an omen, in another work, that of a double portrait, I will show later. What is also particularly striking and may make one giddy is his singular use of perspective: he often chose to paint from an elevated position thus favouring a high angle close to a bird’s eye view and a lot of the scenes are captured from high up. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/spencer-the-resurrection-cookham-n04239. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/polysemes/5623 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/polysemes.5623. 21]. 10Even the beautiful Swan Upping at Cookham [fig. … They are clearly visible in the background together with graves, crosses, flowers, trees, the church porch, grass and landscape at the back. Sir Stanley Spencer, CBE RA (30 June 1891 – 14 December 1959) was an English painter. This paper explores Stanley Spencer's Hoe Garden Nursery (1955) as a constitutive part of the relationship between land, nature and cultural nationalism in the immediate postwar period. 16]. Selected and edited by Adrian Glew. They also corresponded to a renewal of interest in the English garden. Two portraits of Patricia Preece by Stanley Spencer featured in the very first rooms acknowledging the link between his work and these artists’. London: Penguin Books, 2013. Figure 15: John Constable, The Vale of Dedham (1828), oil on canvas, 144.5x122 cm, National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh, https://www.nationalgalleries.org/art-and-artists/4766/vale-dedham, last accessed 1 November 2019. These, which he liked so much and rated higher than all other creations, as being his true achievement as an English painter, still retain the flavour of Cookham, his—paradoxical—heaven. After the war, Spencer struggled to return to the contentment of his now much earlier "golden age". Shortly after leaving the Slade School of Art, Spencer became well known for his paintings depicting Biblical scenes occurring as if in Cookham, the small village beside the River … 5 E.M. Forster’s “Abinger pageant” celebrated the life of the Surrey village of Abinger, as well as national identity and history. Matless, David. Paris : Gallimard, 1973. This was also attuned to the English Heritage series broadcast in 1929 by the BBC and devoted to the “national character”, reflecting the taste for “the cultural cottage” (Osbert Lancaster). In 1940, when Stanley Spencer painted Cottage Garden, Leonard Stanley, one of a series of garden scenes, Britain was at war. Visiting the Ephrussi de Rothschild Villa near Nice, one can discover nine ravishing “national” gardens: beyond the English and the French gardens, the Italian, the Japanese, Provence gardens to quote but a few, display their colours, lines and recognizable patterns and schemes. 12] clearly signposts Spencer’s own quest and vision. 17] in 1930 at the Goupil Salon, quite a number of his paintings are kept in The Ferens Gallery in Hull. All Rights Reserved. Olwig, Kenneth R. “Recovering the Substantive Meaning of Landscape”. They are reminiscent of some of John Constable’s landscapes, which also favoured a high viewpoint, like the 1828 Vale of Dedham [fig. On the one hand, Spencer is tied to the (national and artistic) past, which he celebrates and recreates although at times unwillingly, on the other hand his figure production is singular and original. On the side of exceptions perhaps we would find the symbolical Garden of Eden doomed to be abandoned and the virginal protected hortus conclusus of the Virgin Mary. His paintings also aim at rendering its traditional views and scenes and were acknowledged as the epitome of South-West London rural landscape. Religious scenes are often depicted with great violence like the 1958, the background of which is typically “cookhamesque”. They have a strong foreground which in the case of Spencer acted as a kind of frame but also as a barrier obstructing vision, forcing the eye to make the effort of going beyond the often highly detailed obstacle, foliage or hedge. Turner, Snow Storm: Hannibal crossing the Alps (exhibited 1812), oil on canvas, 146x237 cm, Tate Britain, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/turner-snow-storm-hannibal-and-his-army-crossing-the-alps-n00490, last accessed 1 November 2019. 6In his own strange way, Stanley Spencer offers an interesting instance of a kind of conflicting production concerning his work on landscape. London: Taylor and Francis, 1999. Figure 2: J.M.W. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/hockney-mr-and-mrs-clark-and-percy-t01269. However, with the recent rapid growth of his reputation, his contribution to British art and his true stature as an artist are now internationally recognized. Spencer slowly became a national artist acknowledged as such. English artist Sir Stanley Spencer spent the summer of 1940 hard at work, intent on painting artworks which would attract critics and collectors alike. Thus, the pub and its name evoke past memories under the aegis of one of the British people’s favourite places. On en trouve des équivalents littéraires chez E.M. Forster par exemple et sa célébration d’une « Angleterre verte et éternelle » (Abinger Harvest). Figure 13: Stanley Spencer, The Resurrection, Cookham (1924-1927), oil on canvas, 274.3x548.6 cm, Tate collections, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/spencer-the-resurrection-cookham-n04239, last accessed 1 November 2019. 14], which he set in another English churchyard. Let us remember that the opening scene of Portrait of a Lady is set in such surroundings with the country house standing in the background. 13]—several versions of which were painted—displays Cookham’s church and its typically English adjacent churchyard as an overwhelming milieu for the gruesome and quasi grotesque scene taking place in their compound. His manner slightly altered. Figure 25: David Hockney, The Road to Thwing (2006), see https://thedavidhockneyfoundation.org/resources/film/the-road-to-thwing, last accessed 11 December 2019. This is the true instance of a fight between a much-loved tradition and the need to emancipate oneself from it while following one’s own aesthetic choices and vision rendering. This study will focus on Spencer’s two “manners” and analyse the extent to which his landscapes contributed to the fashioning of a nostalgic yearning for a quickly disappearing world also celebrated in E.M. Forster’s taste for “England green and eternal” (, ) for instance. Another later churchyard painting will strikingly appear, as an omen, in another work, that of a double portrait, I will show later. His ambivalence was perceptible when he wrote: “I want to make love to everything at the same moment and yet be traditional” (Spencer 215, August 1943). I bought some reproductions of his landscapes printed on small wood panels. 27So, surprisingly this paradoxical “eccentric” artist has been recognized as typically English (and eventually British), that is one belonging to the centre and the establishment as opposed to the margin as the word “eccentric” suggests. Liliane Louvel, « Changing/Unchanging Landscapes: Stanley Spencer’s “Peculiarly English” Landscapes », Polysèmes [En ligne], 22 | 2019, mis en ligne le 20 décembre 2019, consulté le 21 janvier 2021. Spencer’s landscape “production” is paradoxical, in the sense that it goes against the grain, against. A fact which has not escaped Jonathan Coe in. This was also attuned to the English Heritage series in 1929 broadcast by the BBC and devoted to the “national character”, and the taste for “the cultural cottage” (Osbert Lancaster). However, as this paper makes clear, there is a complexity of personal, aesthetic, social and moral values that run through Spencer's landscape art. Two very different modes of landscape painting can be descried. Stanley Spencer was born at Fernlea on Cookham High Street on 30 June 1891 and spent his childhood exploring the surrounding woods and meadows and enjoying country life. , which he set in another English churchyard. 14Cookham (and later for a time Wangford following his disastrous second marriage to Patricia Preece) was a place he inhabited but which also haunted him all his life. Select the purchase La coupure et le cerne, Contemporary Victoriana - Women and Parody, Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales. was published by Phaidon in 1992. Figure 23: David Hockney, Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy (1970-1971, acrylic on canvas, 213.4 x 304.8 cm, Tate collections, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/hockney-mr-and-mrs-clark-and-percy-t01269, 1 November 2019. Painted in April 1940. ], all partaking of conversation pieces opening onto windows. Figure 19: Stanley Spencer, Mending Cowls, Cookham (1915), oil on canvas, 109.2x109.2 cm, Tate collections, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/spencer-mending-cowls-cookham-t00530, last accessed 1 November 2019. The Latin word pagus used to refer to the field the farmer used to plough: such an ancient venerable term that the pagans’ paganism, like the landscape of a country, patiently modelled by peasants, all borrowed their five names—be they cultural or religious—from it. Let us remember that the opening scene of. Letters and Writings. used to refer to the field the farmer used to plough: such an ancient venerable term that the pagans’ paganism, like the landscape of a country, patiently modelled by peasants, all borrowed their five names—be they cultural or religious—from it. Stanley Spencer (1992). 7Spencer’s landscape “production” is paradoxical, in the sense that it goes against the grain, against doxa, when we realize that he painted two very different kinds of landscapes. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/turner-snow-storm-hannibal-and-his-army-crossing-the-alps-n00490. So the issue does not concern the “reality” or the truthfulness of their models but their painterly treatment. La vision idéalisée d’un village anglais entretenue par Country Life fut plus tard remise en scène dans des séries télévisées comme Miss Marple, Downton Abbey ou Inspector Morse. 21Spencer’s paintings also corresponded to a renewal “of interest in the English garden, best represented by Gertrude Jekyll’s designs and books” (Bell 284). Stanley Spencer’s strong link with the “English” landscape is particularly obvious in his desire to be called “Cookham”, the name of his Berkshire native village. Ecological Landscape Design and Planning. An exhibition of his work was held in 1980 at the Royal Academy and then a retrospective in 1997 in Washington DC under the title Stanley Spencer: An English Vision (1997) organized by the Hirshborn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Bien qu’il dût souvent le faire pour des motifs économiques, il aimait cependant s’asseoir en plein air pour peindre sur le motif. After the war, in 1945, he painted the hallucinatory. 1 See list of paintings at the end of the article. Framed. Elles correspondent aussi à un regain d’intérêt pour le jardin anglais. Voir la notice dans le catalogue OpenEdition, Plan du site – Contacts – Crédits – Flux de syndication, Nous adhérons à OpenEdition – Édité avec Lodel – Accès réservé, Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search, Changing/Unchanging Landscapes: Stanley Spencer’s “Peculiarly English”, Des paysages changeants/inchangés : les paysages « étrangement anglais » de Stanley Spencer, Stanley Spencer strongly felt for the English landscape and in particular for Cookham, his native village in Berkshire, which he called his “heaven”. The musician David Bowie narrates this BBC documentary of British painter Sir Stanley Spencer of Cookham in 2001. We’re trying to look back, of course, on our rich and varied history; but we’re also trying to look forward. Looking for more? View more property details, sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow. 15]. Figure 3: Stanley Spencer, Swan Upping at Cookham (1915-1919), oil on canvas, 148x116.2 cm, Tate collections, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/spencer-swan-upping-at-cookham-t00525, last accessed 1 November 2019. They have a strong foreground which in the case of Spencer acted as a kind of frame but also as a barrier obstructing vision, forcing the eye to make the effort of going beyond the often highly detailed obstacle, foliage or hedge. In the beautiful gardens and landscapes he painted which were so popular and admired as truly English, some uncanny element may be descried: huge squat massive jars, too brilliant colours, gardens overrun with vegetation gone wild smothering houses, iron scraps left to rust, strange twiglike distorted tree limbs, a bowl of captive fish solitary left on flags in front of boats, an unexpected leg of mutton in a nude painting of Patricia Preece [, ]… The leg of mutton refers to a typical English feature and institution characteristic of a typically English rural landscape. Elle est actuellement présidente de IAWIS/IAERTI (International Society of Word & Image Studies). Press, Paul Chapman Publishing, Pine Forge Press, SAGE Reference, SAGE Science and Scolari (US and Europe websites) imprints. Figure 4: Stanley Spencer, Zacharias and Elizabeth (1913-1914), oil on canvas, 142.6x142.8 cm, Tate collections, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/spencer-zacharias-and-elizabeth-t07486, last accessed 1 November 2019. or is there another England green and eternal, which will outlast them? The English retained pagan, paganism, page, peasant, but not, . Although he often had to do so as a potboiler, he did enjoy sitting out painting in the open watching and relishing the view. Even some of Hockney’s recent Yorkshire landscapes strikingly share formal traits with Spencer’s views of Cookham’s fields and meadows seen from a distance, for instance Hockney’s 2006 The Road to Thwing [fig. (50.8 x 76.2 cm.) I would never have dreamt of doing the same with one of what he called his “figure paintings”, first and foremost his. ) National identities even became associated with types of gardens. Figure 21: Lucian Freud, Factory in North London (1972), oil on canvas, 71x71 cm, private collection, https://www.wikiart.org/en/lucian-freud/factory-in-north-london, last accessed 1 November 2019. “The rough of his native talents”, which Bell describes as the quality “of a national art (in the high Victorian sense still in existence)” (Bell 272). It is also a shared space, that of a community, and it works as a cultural construction answering Kenneth Olwig’s attempt at a redefinition of it as “the substantive meaning of landscape as a place of human habitation and environmental interaction” (Olwig 630). As if putting under our own eyes our worst nightmares, those of another suppressed world appearing in a. light, with the texture of their clothes seen under a microscope. (Forster 384), Nostalgia and jingoism explain the success of those “lovely” pictures, although people did not perceive the slightly or discreet uncanny elements one may perceive in them: for Spencer never gave up his singular vision of his ordinary world in spite of its peculiar perspective and crowded in details. The Tate keeps his letters (sometimes including drawings) and all kinds of material in its archives and Adrian Glew was entrusted with the publication of some of them. Still the page I am writing on and the reader is reading today, the most ancient way of stocking up information, and one of the first circuits, also and still derives from the same word. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Even in Freud’s landscapes we may find similarities: for instance if we compare Spencer’s Merville Garden Village Near Belfast [fig. The seemingly apparent paradox of this divided production reflects the artist’s makeup and his own private division between his own self and his “other selves”, as he himself called them. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Deeply “eccentric” in inspiration, he was also deeply of his nation in his love for fine landscapes, which he painted and rendered unto his fellow countrymen for keeps, in celebration of: This royal throne of kings, this scepter’d isle. Find more prominent pieces of landscape at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. In his own strange way, Stanley Spencer offers an interesting instance of a kind of conflicting production concerning his work on landscape. 'S written & drawn records to interpret past progress & myths, clearly, the Gallery... 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